The evolution of technology: who and how invented the phone
Posted by: 14.07.2018
Currently, people can’t imagine their life without smartphones, but modern users have no idea who invented the phone. And although this information is unlikely to bring material benefits to someone, it will come in handy for general development.
The idea of implementing this device belongs to two people at once: Alexander Graham Bell and Antonio Meucci. These people applied for a patent with a difference of 5 years, but officially the first of them is considered the “father” of the invention, despite the fact that he turned to the bureau later. During their research, scientists pushed off the development of Paul Schilling 1832, the electromagnetic telegraph. Later this idea was supported by other scientists.
The first phone called "telephoto" came up with Meucci - Italian, who lived in England in 1871 year. The invention was capable of transmitting sound over wires over long distances. However, Antonio was unlucky, as his patent application was considered for 5 years, until Alexander Bell created the “speaking telegraph” in 1876. After lengthy litigation, Meucci was acknowledged, but by then his certificate had expired. The Italian was left with nothing.
Thus, now to the question of who invented the first telephone, many answer that it was Alexander Bell. He also managed with electricity to transmit human speech in space. This device was presented to the general public at the 1876 exhibition in England and was remembered by a minimum sound delay.
There is also a different opinion that the idea of creating a telephone belongs to this person. A similar device was developed by him in the 1861 year, however, the documentary evidence of this fact was “lost” on the initiative of F. Jill.
According to papers published in London, this businessman from the UK really deliberately concealed Rice's invention. Such a move was intended to conceal the treachery of Gill, the head of the organization testing Philip's device. His company tried its best to conclude a contract with American Telephone and Telegraph (a subsidiary of A. Bell), moreover, quite successfully.
Thus, Jill considered that American Telephone and Telegraph would break the contract if information about its interaction with Rice's invention would come to the surface. Since then, various documents confirming and disproving the authorship of Philip Rice have periodically appeared in public access.
However, as it became known later, Rice's device transmitted sound only over very short distances, so its development was losing heavily on the Meucci and Bell options. Moreover, some historians even believe that his device cannot be called a telephone due to this shortcoming.
First mobile phone
Cell device invented in 1983 year. Its creator was the company Motorola, which released the model DynaTAC 8000X. Despite the huge price in 4 thousand dollars, the device was wildly popular and bought up at an incredible speed.
In standby mode, the phone could be quite a short time, since it retained a full charge for an hour. At the same time, he maintained the entire 30 minutes of conversation, after which it was required to connect the battery to the network. His charge took as long as 10 hours.
Also, the device had a very inconspicuous design and weighed 1 kg, but at the time, the possession of such a device was considered a sign of luxury. Of course, a modern user would hardly have turned his attention to such a bulky unit without a display, having all the 12 keys.
Already after 4, Nokia released the Mobira Cityman 900, the first satellite phone. He could transmit a signal over considerable distances, for example, Mikhail Gorbachev contacted Moscow from Finland with his help. At the same time, the cost of the device in translation to the current exchange rate was about 200 thousand rubles, but even this did not stop future buyers.
This development did not stop. There were more compact cell phones, the functionality of which increased with each subsequent model. For example, already in 1996, Nokia once again distinguished itself by offering the Nokia 9000 Communicator to the market - the first smartphone with a monochrome display and keyboard and weighing only 400 in. Other innovations were not long in coming:
- Mobile gadget with touch screen. The creator of the technology is considered the IBM brand, previously engaged only in computer development. His invention took as much as 5 years, so the device was presented to the general public only in 1998 year. Later, the idea was picked up and perfected by LG, which released KE2007 Prada in 850, a model with a capacitive display that responds to the touch of a finger.
- Phone equipped with a video camera. Japanese Sharp J-SH04, released in 2000, had a very low resolution (total 0,1 Mp), but even this seemed to be a miracle to users, therefore it was a huge breakthrough in technology.
- New from the company Ericsson. The smartphone, presented by her in the same 2000 year, had many functions, while having very compact dimensions and light weight - just 160 g. A resistive touchscreen and a flip cover were built into this device, protecting it from mechanical damage.
Then, a smartphone based on Android OS developed by Android Inc. appeared in 2008. (now purchased by google). In Russia, the first model working on this “axis” was the Highscreen PP5420. A year earlier, Steve Jobs announced today’s popular iPhone series, the release of which continued even after the death of the founder of the Apple Company.
All these people have made a huge contribution to the world of science and technology. The phone has come a long way from the development of Meucci and the Bell apparatus to modern smartphones, thanks to which users can connect to the Internet, shoot video, take pictures and perform a ton of other operations. But the development continues and, perhaps, soon smartphones will become even more powerful and functional.